SECTION — A

**1.** Define the term “threshold frequency”, in **(1)****OR**

Define the term “intensity” in

**2.** When **(1)**

**3.** In **(1)****OR**

On what factors does the range of coverage in ground wave propagation depend?

**4.** When the potential difference applied across the ends of a conductor, how is the drift velocity of the electrons related to the relaxation time? **(1)**

**5.** Draw the equipotential surfaces due to an isolated point charge. **(1)**⭐

SECTION — B

**6.** Explain with the help of Einstein’s **(2)**

**7.** A **B**, acting normal to the direction of motion of the particles. **(2)**

**8.** Two bulbs rated (P1**(2)**

**9.** Calculate the radius of curvature of an **(2)****OR**

An equilateral glass prism has a refractive index 1.6 in

**10.** State Bohr’s quantization condition of angular momentum. Calculate the shortest wavelength of the Bracket Series and state to which part of the electromagnetic spectrum does it belong. **(2)****OR**

Calculate the orbital period of the electron in the first excited state of

**11. **Plot a graph showing the variation of deBroglie wavelength ( λ ) associated with a charged particle of mass m, versus √ V, where V is the accelerating potential. **b)** An electron, a proton and an alpha particle have the same kinetic energy. Which one has the shortest wavelength? **(2)**

**12.** Why a signal Transmitted from a TV tower cannot be received beyond a certain distance? Write the expression for the optimum separation between the receiving and the transmitting antenna. **(2)**

SECTION — C

**13. (a)** State the underlying principle of a moving coil galvanometer. **(b)** Give two reasons to explain why a galvanometer cannot as such be used to measure the value of the current in a given circuit. **(c)** Define the terms : (i) Voltage sensitivity and (ii) current sensitivity of a galvanometer. **(3)**

**14. (a) **Define mutual Inductance and write its SI unit. **(b)** A square loop of side ‘a’ carrying a current I2 is kept at distance x from an infinitely long straight wire carrying a current I1 as shown in the figure. Obtain the expression for the resultant force acting on the loop. ** (3)**

**15. (a)** Draw equipotential surfaces corresponding to the electric field that uniformly increases in magnitude along with the z-direction. **(b)** Two charges -q and +q are located at points (0,0,-a) and (0,0,a). What is the electrostatic potential at the points (0,0, ± z) and (x,y,0)? **(3)**⭐

**16.** Using Kirchhoff’s rules, calculate the current through the 40 Ω and 20 Ω resistors in the following circuit : **(3)**

**OR**

What is the end error in a metre bridge? How is it overcome? The resistance in the two arms of the metre bridge

**17. (a)** Write the relation between half-life and the average life of a radioactive nucleus. **(b)** In the given sample two isotopes A and B are initially present in the ratio of 1:2. Their half lives are 60 years and 30 years respectively. How long will it take so that the sample has these isotopes in the ratio of 2:1? **(3)**

**18.** Define the term wavefront. Using Huygen’s wave theory, verify the law of reflection. **(3)** **OR **

Define the term “refractive index” of a medium. Verify Snell’s law of refraction when a plane wavefront is propagating from a denser to a rarer medium.

**19. (a)** Define the term “Self Inductance” of a coil. Write its SI Unit. **(b)** A rectangular loop of side a and b carrying current I2 is kept at a distance ‘a’ from an infinitely long straight wire carrying current I1 as shown in the figure. Obtain an expression for the resultant force acting on the loop.

**20.** **(a)** Describe briefly the functions of the three segments of **(b)** Draw the circuit arrangement for studying the output characteristics of **(3)****OR**

Draw the circuit diagram of a full wave rectifier and explain its working.

**21. (a) **If A and B represent the maximum and minimum amplitude of an amplitude modulated wave, write the expression for the modulation index in terms of A and B. **(b) **A message signal of frequency 20 KHz and peak voltage 10 V is used to modulate a carrier of frequency 2 MHz **(3)**

**22. (a)** State Gauss’s law for magnetism. Explain its significance.

(b) Write the four important properties of the magnetic field lines due to a bar magnet. **(3)****OR**

write three points of difference between para-, dia-, and

**23. (a)** Identify the part of the electromagnetic spectrum used in (i) radar and (ii) eye surgery. Write their frequency range. **(b)** Prove that the average energy density of the oscillating electric field is equal to that of the oscillating magnetic field. **(3)**

**24. (a)** Three photodiodes D1, D2 and D3 are made of semiconductors having band gaps of 2.5 eV, 2 eV and 3 eV respectively. Which of them will not be able to detect light of wavelength 600 nm?**(b)** Why photodiodes are required to operate in reverse bias? Explain. **(3)**

SECTION — D

**25. (a)** Describe any two characteristic features which distinguish between interference and diffraction phenomena. Derive the expression for the intensity at a point of the interference pattern in the Young’s Double Slit experiment. **(b)** In the diffraction due to a single slit experiment, the aperture of the slit is 3 mm. If monochromatic light of wavelength 620 nm is incident normally on the slit, calculate the separation between the first order minima and the 3rd order maxima on one side of the screen. The distance between the slit and the screen is 1.5m. **(5)****OR****(a)** Under what conditions is the phenomenon of total internal reflection of light observed? Obtain the relation between the critical angle of incidence and the refractive index of the medium. **(b)** The lenses of focal length +10 cm, -10 cm and +30 cm are arranged coaxially as in the figure given below. Find the position of the final image formed by the combination.

**26. (a)** Describe briefly the process of transferring the charge between the two plates of a parallel plate capacitor when connected to a battery. Derive an expression for the energy stored in a capacitor. **(b)** A parallel plate capacitor is charged by a battery to a potential difference V. It is disconnected from the battery and then connected to another uncharged capacitor of the same capacitance. Calculate the ratio of the energy stored in the combination to the initial energy on the single capacitor. **(5)****OR****(a)** Derive an expression for the electric field at any point on the equatorial line of an electric dipole. **(b)** Two identical point charges, q

**27. **(a) In a series LCR circuit connected across an ac source of variable frequency. Obtain the expression for its impedance and draw a plot showing its variation with frequency of the ac source. **(b)** What is the phase difference between the voltages across the inductor and the capacitor at resonance in the LCR circuit?**(c)** When an inductor is connected to a 200 V dc voltage, a current of 1 A flows through it. When the same inductor is connected to a 200 V, 50 Hz ac source, only 0.5 A current flows. Explain, why? Also, calculate the self-inductance of the inductor. **(5)****OR****(a)** Draw the diagram of a device which is used to decrease high ac voltage into a low ac voltage and state its working principle. Write four sources of energy loss in the device. **(b)** A small town with a demand of 1200 KW of electric power at 220 V is situated 20 Km away from an electric plant generating power at 440 V. The resistance of the